Lichen indication air quality Skadovsk town
The results of the quality of the air in the Skadovsk town with using lichens are given. The aim of the paper was establish possible vectors flow of pollutants into the atmosphere of the coastal town and the comparison of the data after lichen monitoring with those given for other town in Kherson region. The map with different lichen indication zones as unpolluted, small polluted, middle polluted and very polluted are created. This map constructed after lichen mapping of the Skadovsk town with use of the index of air pollution (IAP). 41 species of the corticolous lichens were found in the Skadovsk town. This epiphithic lichen composition is similar to these Kherson city (44 species), Poltava (49 species), Ternopil (45 species), Ivano-Frankivsk (45 species) and Lutsk (37 species). Arthonia punctiformis, Flavoplaca flavocitrina and Strangospora ochrophora were reported for the first time for urban landscape of the Kherson oblast. The landscape structure of the Skadovsk town are provided. There are residential landscapes (6,8 km2, or 63 %), wasteland (2 km2, or 18,8 %), warehouse landscapes (1,1 km2, 9,8 %); garden park landscapes (0,5 km2 or 4,7 %); transport landscapes (0,3 km2 or 2,8 %), industrial landscapes (0,1 km2 or 0,8 %). We are used urban landscapes and lichen indication zones overlapping. This enables possible ranking of air quality in the town landscapes and to establish the possible sources of pollutions in their territory. The territory of the town was divided into zones with different air quality as a result of the calculation of IAP. The largest among isotoxic lichen indication zones is unspopolluted (5,6 km2 or representing 51,9 % of the town area), the small polluted is 3,2 km2 (or 29,6 %), the middle polluted is 1,9 km2 (or 17,6 %) and very polluted is 0,1 km2 (or 0,9 %). The lowest air quality registered in the transport landscape because 30 % of it areas are located in middle polluted zone. The highest air quality formed in the wastelands where over 96 % square are located in unpolluted and small-polluted areas. After the low level of the town industrialization, there are two main vectors of pollutants flow to the town air. At the first, there are emissions from heating systems, including complex multi-storey buildings in the town located along the street Sergievskaya, between Dzharylgachska and Nezalezhnosti streets. At the second, it is transport emissions. A dense network of highways, especially on how not restricted movement of large vehicles, formed the «skeleton frame» of middle polluted zone. The numerous of the high air quality markers (81,5 %) in Skadovsk town were found in unpolluted and middle polluted zones. The air quality on the territory of the Skadovsk town is rather high in comparison with Kherson (34 %), Nova Kakhovka (60,2 %), Kakhovka (77,9 %) and Beryslav (88,75 %). Instead, the air quality in residential landscapes of Skadovsk town is intermediate between these towns with unpolluted and small polluted zones in 75 % while in Kakhovka and Beryslav were 83,1 % and 81 % respectively, exceeding Nova Kakhovka (31,7 %) and Kherson (37 %).
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