Hardware – wheat pests as elements of the species consortium
Annually in the world, insect pests kill 10–15 % of the crop yield, which in the face of increasing humanity creates a global problem for food security. For the territory of Ukraine in some years, the loss of wheat yields reach 25 % and, in the face of this tendency, real risks to the security of the state are created. Considering that the agrarian trend of the state development has been increasing in recent years, the development of grain-adapted to the ecological and climatic conditions of Ukraine is a priority direction of the development of domestic agriculture. And the development of new environmentally friendly methods of controlling pests of wheat using parasitic organisms will become a fundamentally new and pressing issue in the development of organic production in the country. The general list of pest species that can cause serious wheat yield and forage reduction in Ukraine includes more than 230 names, but only 18 species are able toentail the biggest losses. Among them belong to the order Coleoptera. One insect species is usually a host of several species of mites, nematodes and up to ten species of gregarines and microsporidia. Unfortunately, the taxonomic composition of parasites of phytophagous pets of wheat in Ukraine has not been thoroughly investigated. We studied the interrelation between parasites of
4 phytophagous insects of wheat as well as of 14 insect species found in granaries. The study of the species composition of parasitic organisms of wheat and grain pests is based on the study of the elementary part of the consortium ecosystem, where they act as second order consortia. Phytophagous parasites of wheat and collar pests of cereals, as second-order consorts, have been fragmented worldwide. The purpose of this work is to determine the species composition of gregarine as a component of wheat consortium for their further use in the creation of integrated methods of protection of wheat and products of its processing. As a result, 28 species of gregarines were registered, which belong to seven families (Didymophyidae, Ophryocystidae, Hirmocystidae, Lipotrophidae, Stylocephalidae, Actinocephalidae and Gregarinidae). On the average, 1–2 species of gregarines parasitize in one pest species. 7–10 species of parasites were identified in some insects of the family Tenebrionidae (Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, 1863). Each presented parasite is characteristic of 1–2 species of pests, but there are species of gregarines that infect up to four species of model species, such as Gregarina cuneata Stein, 1848. The largest number of individuals who are infested with gregarines belong to such families as Tenebrionidae and Dermestidae (38,6 % and 36,0 % of the total number of species, respectively). On pests – phytophages parasitizes about 8 species of gregarine families Stylocephalidae, Gregarinidae, Actinocephalidae. For barns pests are recorded barnacles of all 7 families.
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