Influence of anthropogenic factors on the fauna of diplopods in the steppe zone of Ukraine

  • V. M. Kozak Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Dnipro, Ukraine
Keywords: saprophages, Diplopoda, Julidae, litter invertebrates, heavy metals, pesticides, ecosystem pollution

Abstract

Various industries that constantly pollute the environment with their waste are quite well developed in the steppe zone of Ukraine. That in turn affects living organisms. The analysis of literature sources allowed to determine the factors influencing the diplopods fauna of the Steppe. Parasites, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, heavy metals and other pollutants adversely affect invertebrates. Pesticides (glyphosate, imidacloprid, dimethoate, pirimiphos-methyl, propargite, cypermethrin, tebuconazole, chlorpyrifos, mefenoxam, mancozeb, sulfur, propiconazole, cyprodinil) are toxic to diplopods. They can affect lifetime, fertility, abundance, coordination of movements, feeding rates, change body weight and even in high concentrations cause the death of these animals. Sulfur, pirimiphos-methyl, propiconazole, imidacloprid, dimethoate and cypermethrin are the most toxic of all these pesticides. They cause the highest mortality. Heavy metals accumulate in the bodies of saprophages, reduce their abundance, affect body weight, cause a change in the intensity of eating food by diplopods. Nickel, lead, cadmium, zinc, cuprum and ferrum are toxic to millipedes. High concentrations of cadmium cause 100% mortality of Megaphyllum kievense (Lohmander, 1928). The development of urbanization causes a decrease in the abundance of saprophages. The species composition and number of individuals of some taxonomic groups of millipedes are reduced in reclamation areas. The nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser, 1955) and Heterorhabditis heliothidis (Khan, Brooks & Hirschmann, 1976) slow down the protective reactions of the body of Oxidus gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847). The high intensity of diplopod infection with gregarines slows down the feeding process of Rossiulus kessleri (Lohmander, 1927). Lighting, soil humidity and the number of ants also affect the abundance of diplopods in natural forests and forest plantations of the steppe zone. Thus the diplopods are influenced by many environmental factors that can reduce their abundance in agrocenoses, forested and reclamation areas of the steppe zone of Ukraine.

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Published
2021-03-28
How to Cite
Kozak, V. (2021). Influence of anthropogenic factors on the fauna of diplopods in the steppe zone of Ukraine. Ecology and Noospherology, 32(1), 51-60. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/032109