Antibiotic-resistant microbiota of water and soil ecosystems as risk factors for human health
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is one of the three major health challenges of the 21st century. One of the most important reasons for the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment is the irrational and uncontrolled use of antibacterial drugs, not only for medical but also other purposes, and their improper disposal. The microbiome of aquatic and soil ecosystems is characterized by the acquisition of antibiotic resistance through mobile genetic elements, contact with antibacterial drugs and their residues, the action of heavy metals and environmental stress. Also, according to the literature, it is noted that the resistance of microorganisms to antibacterial drugs in the environment existed much earlier than in clinical strains. These facts can not help but worry, because antibiotic-resistant strains of the environment have an extremely negative impact on human health. Once in the human body with water and food, they significantly complicate and / or make it impossible to further treat life-threatening diseases. Also, antibacterial residues circulating in aquatic and soil ecosystems, entering the human body can cause cancer, allergic reactions or disruption of the natural intestinal microflora. These ecosystems are characterized by large-scale spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, antibacterial drugs and their residues. The aim of our work was to analyze with the help of theoretical methods of scientific research the reasons for the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance among environmental microbiota, namely in aquatic and soil ecosystems. To determine the impact of antibiotic-resistant bacteria of these ecosystems on human health. We have found that antibacterial drugs, antibiotic-resistant strains and resistance genes are a particular problem for wastewater treatment. Antibiotics can provide a selective load, as the mechanisms that break them down can promote resilience and selectively enrich. Wastewater treatment plants can be a favorable factor for the horizontal transfer of genes and the development of bacterial polyresistance, and high-resistance genes can be preserved even after disinfection. Soil is also an important reservoir for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. Microorganisms are in a constant struggle for existence in this ecosystem and try to colonize the micro-scale with the most favorable for their ecotype habitat. Antibiotic-resistant soil bacteria are in close contact with other members of the microbiota, which in turn promotes the horizontal transfer of resistance genes, even between cells of different species or genera through genetic determinants. Conclusion: ecosystems are characterized by large-scale spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, antibacterial drugs and their residues. Therefore, this problem should be properly addressed, as the presence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, antibacterial drugs and their residues in the environment can cause unpredictable environmental consequences and adversely affect human health with more severe incurable infectious diseases. Monitoring programs for antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and resistance genes in soil and aquatic ecosystems are necessary and very relevant today. After all, this microbiota poses a serious threat to both the environment and human health and can easily spread from one part of the world around the world.
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