Assessment of leaf damage degree in Aesculus hippocastanum L. during the growing season in the conditions of Dnipro city
One of the unique indicators of environmental pollution is Aesculus hippocastanum Linnaeus, 1753, distributed in different ecological conditions of most European cities in both the southern and northern temperate zones. For a long time bitter chestnut belonged to the number of highly resistant wood species. But in the last two decades, the condition of bitter chestnut plantations has deteriorated significantly due to the impact of adverse abiotic environmental factors (due to global climate change and increasing man-made load), and due to mass reproduction of phytophagous and phytopathogenic. A. hippocastanum especially suffers from chestnut miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimič, 1986), for which it is the main forage plant. The aim of our study was to assess the degree of damage to the leaf surface of Aesculus hippocastanum L. during the growing season in the Dnipro. Analysis of damage to the leaf blades of the forage plant C. ohridella was performed for four years (2018–2021) visually on a modified scale proposed by M. D. Zerova et al. (2007). The research covered eight main park urban ecosystems of the Dnipro. Four stable generations of C. ohridella were established in the city of Dnipro. The development period of one separate generation of chestnut miner lasts from 65 to 110 days. The beginning of the flight of adults of the first generation occurs at the end of April and the beginning of May. Monitoring was carried out during three summer months, which corresponds to the main feeding period of the three most active generations of C. ohridella (I, II and III). A. hippocastanum leaf blades have been found to be damaged differently in different park urban ecosystems. The highest percentage of damage in all park areas is observed in August, when three generations were almost completely fed. A significant dependence of the area of affected leaves of bitter chestnut common invasive C. ohridella on the period of the growing season was found. According to our research, in all eight test plots, which corresponded to the main area and functional load of the green areas of the Dnipro, during the summer there is an increase in the area affected by the miner leaf in chestnuts. During the four years of observations (2018-2021), in the city of Dnipro, this generalized indicator ranged from 32% in June to 65% in August. This increase can be explained by the increase in the number of mines, due to the gradual emergence of the second and third generations of C. ohridella, each of which is more numerous than the previous one
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